Circulus in demonstrando, Circular reasoning, Circular argument, Paradoxical thinking, Circular cause and consequence, Reasoning in a circle, Vicious circle

What is circular reasoning?

Have you heard this song before? Does a statement feel like a broken record? Then you are probably confronted with circular reasoning. The type of argumentation repeats the same position in different terms. By simply rephrasing the same argument, the impression is given that a position is substantiated, while in fact the rephrased position proves nothing.

Logical form circular reasoning:
X is true because of Y. Y is true because of X.

Have you heard that song before?

Fallacies closely related to circular reasoning include begging the question and petitio principii.

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